## compile-time repeat & noexcept-correctness

13 november 2017

In my previous article (“abstraction design and implementation: repeat) I’ve shown how to implement a simple repeat(n, f) abstraction that invokes a FunctionObject f $$n$$ times in a row.

A large part of the article focused on adding a noexcept specifier to repeat that correctly propagated noexcept-correctness depending on the actions performed on the passed arguments. Adding a noexcept specifier resulted in a less elegant, longer, and less accessible implementation.

Is it worth the hassle? Jason Rice posted a comment on the previous article asking:

What are the benefits of noexcept-correctness?

Before diving into the implementation of a compile-time version of repeat, let’s try to understand the importance (or lack thereof) of noexcept-correctness.

### noexcept-correctness

Let’s begin with the noexcept keyword itself. When was it added? Why does it exist?

The noexcept keyword can have two meanings.

• noexcept specifier: appears in a lambda declarator or function declarator. Since C++17, this is part of the function type.

void infallible() noexcept;
// We are declaring that this function will not throw
// any exception.

void everyone_makes_mistakes();
// We are declaring that this function might throw an
// exception.

template <int Age>
void especially_when_young() noexcept(Age > 18);
// We are declaring that this function will not throw
// any exception if Age > 18, but might throw an
// exception otherwise.
• noexcept operator: given an expression e, evaluates to true if e is noexcept. (The expression itself is not evaluated.)

static_assert(noexcept(infallible()));
static_assert(!noexcept(everyone_makes_mistakes()));
static_assert(noexcept(especially_when_young<23>()));
static_assert(!noexcept(especially_when_young<11>()));

Marking functions (and constructors/destructors) noexcept has various benefits:

• Clear semantics and readability. A function marked noexcept is guaranteed to not throw - users therefore know that there’s no need for any try-catch block.

• Compiler optimizations. Imagine the following scenario:

bool flag = false;
try
{
foo();
flag = true;
}
catch(...)
{
// ...
}

If foo is marked noexcept then the compiler might decide to get rid of all the extra code related to exception handling and possibly just assume that flag is always true.

• Library optimizations. This is, in my opinion, the most important benefit. Library code can check whether or not an expression is noexcept thanks to the previously mentioned noexcept operator. This can have an immense impact on performance.

Consider std::vector::resize: when it requires the vector’s internal buffer to grow, all elements must be copied or moved from the old buffer to a new one. This member function has the strong exception guarantee - if any exception occurs during its invocation, no effects will occur.

Imagine moving the vector‘s elements from the old buffer to the new one. If any of the elements’ move constructor throws an exception, there is no way to satisfy the strong exception guarantee, as the original contents of the vector might have been irreversibly mutated.

Implementations of std::vector<T>::resize will therefore copy elements instead of moving them, if T::T(T&&) is not marked noexcept.

This should give you an idea of why noexcept-correctness is important. The follow-up question might now be:

Is noexcept-correctness important for repeat?

Would it be enough to mark repeat as noexcept(true)?

Or should it just be noexcept(false)?

In order to find an answer, imagine the following two scenarios:

• repeat being used in the constructor of some hypothetical library utility boop, which itself propagates noexcept-correctness:

struct boop
{
boop() noexcept(noexcept(repeat(2, some_action)))
{
repeat(2, some_action);
}
};

If boop is used as an element type for std::vector and if repeat doesn’t correctly propagate noexcept… we could get the aforementioned performance pessimization.

• repeat being used in a try-catch block:

try
{
repeat(5, []
{
attempt_connection(/* ... */); // might throw
std::this_thread::sleep_for(1s);
});
}
catch(...)
{
std::cerr << "Fatal error: could not reach network\n";
}

If repeat was marked noexcept(true), the whole try-catch block would be useless.

Therefore, I think that neither noexcept(true) nor noexcept(false) are applicable to repeat. The correct thing to do here (and, in my opinion, for any other general-purpose utility) is to propagate noexcept-correctness by using conditional noexcept operators.

Let’s forget about noexcept now, and check out how we can implement repeat at compile-time!

### repeat at compile-time

Firstly, what does it mean to repeat something at compile-time?

• repeat(n, f) will execute f n times at run-time.

• repeat<n>(f) will generate code that invokes f n times.

You can think of repeat<n>(f) as a explicit form of loop unrolling.

Let’s now take a look at some desired usage examples:

// Generate code that prints out "hello!" five times in a row:
repeat<5>([]
{
std::cout << "hello!\n";
});
// Compile-time loop with an index that's a "constant expression":
repeat<128>([](auto i)
{
if constexpr(i % 3 == 0 && i % 5 == 0)
{
std::cout << "FizzBuzz\n";
}
else if constexpr(i % 3 == 0)
{
std::cout << "Fizz\n";
}
else if constexpr(i % 5 == 0)
{
std::cout << "Buzz\n";
}
else
{
std::cout << i << '\n';
}
});

Similarly to the run-time version of repeat, we want an homogeneous interface that will detect whether or not the passed FunctionObject accepts an index as an argument. If it does, the compile-time version of repeat will provide an index which is a constant expression - this is what allows us to use if constexpr(...) in our compile-time “fizz buzz” implementation.

So, how do we implement repeat<n>? Let’s begin with the signature:

template <auto N, typename F>
void repeat(F&& f)
{
// ...
}

Note that we’re using a new C++17 feature: auto as a non-type template parameter. This allows the user to decide what type the “counter” should be without requiring additional boilerplate.

Let’s now focus on implementing repeat without passing an index. Our goal is to generate code that invokes f() N times. We could do this using recursion… or we can embrace C++17’s powerful fold expressions.

The solution I came up with here will work as follows:

• Generate a compile-time integer sequence with std::make_integer_sequence.

• Match the generated indices in a detail implementation function.

• Fold over the generated indices, invoking f().

repeat will simply create the sequence and invoke the implementation function:

template <auto N, typename F>
void repeat(F&& f)
{
detail::repeat_impl(
f, std::make_integer_sequence<decltype(N), N>{});
}

repeat_impl will match the generated indices and perform a fold over the comma operator:

template <typename F, typename T, T... Is>
void repeat_impl(F&& f, std::integer_sequence<T, Is...>)
{
( ((void)Is, f()), ... );
}

The fold expression ( ((void)Is, f()), ... ) expands to something like:

// pseudocode
((void)0, f()),
((void)1, f()),
((void)2, f()),
// ...
((void)N - 1, f())

That’s it! Here’s a live example on wandbox.org.

In order to pass the index to the callback, we can use std::integral_constant, which has a constexpr implicit conversion operator to its underlying type. Like in the previous article, we can use if constexpr and std::is_invocable_v to detect whether or not f accepts an index:

template <typename F, typename T, T... Is>
void repeat_impl(F&& f, std::integer_sequence<T, Is...>)
{
if constexpr((std::is_invocable_v<F&&,
std::integral_constant<T, Is>> && ...))
{
( f(std::integral_constant<T, Is>{}), ... );
}
else
{
( ((void)Is, f()), ... );
}
}

A few points to make here:

• We’re using a fold expression over && to check if f is invocable with all of our integral constants.

• We’re using another fold expression over the comma operator to invoke f with an integral constant created for every index in Is....

Here’s a live example on wandbox.org, with the compile-time “fizz buzz”.

noexcept-correctness is left as an exercise for the reader ;)

### minor improvements

std::integer_sequence and std::integral_constant are so 2011. Now that we can use auto as a non-type template parameter, we can do better:

template <auto... Is>
using sequence = std::integer_sequence
<
detail::seq_type<Is...>,
Is...
>;

detail::seq_type calculates the common type of Is..., or evaluates to int if sizeof...(Is) == 0.

template <auto I>
using constant = std::integral_constant<decltype(I), I>;

template <auto I>
using make_sequence = std::make_integer_sequence<decltype(I), I>;

With these minor improvements, the final code is much cleaner:

namespace detail
{
template <typename F, auto... Is>
void repeat_impl(F&& f, sequence<Is...>)
{
if constexpr((std::is_invocable_v<F&&, constant<Is>> && ...))
{
( f(constant<Is>{}), ... );
}
else
{
( ((void)Is, f()), ... );
}
}
}

template <auto N, typename F>
void repeat(F&& f)
{
detail::repeat_impl(f, make_sequence<N>{});
}

Now, if we only had an if constexpr(...) equivalent for the ternary operator, we could write repeat_impl as a single expression (and get noexcept-correctness for free):

// pseudocode
template <typename F, auto... Is>
void repeat_impl(F&& f, sequence<Is...>)
{
( constexpr((std::is_invocable_v<F&&, constant<Is>> && ...))
? f(constant<Is>{})
: f(), ... )
}

…time for a proposal?